Systemic failures in prisons, the criminal justice system and community agencies are contributing to the deaths of children and young people in custody, a report has said.
The lack of action over the past decade is a "devastating indictment of bad practice", former chief inspector of prisons Lord Ramsbotham said.
Nine children and more than 190 other young people aged 24 and under have died in prisons or secure training centres since calls for a review went unfulfilled following the death of 16-year-old Joseph Scholes 10 years ago, campaigners said.
The criminal justice system and community services "have demonstrably let young people down, for all the wrong reasons, for far too long", Lord Ramsbotham said.
"Too often 'tough' talk about crime and punishment does not result in the authoritative action needed to rectify the flaws in our criminal justice system," he wrote in the foreword to the report called Fatally Flawed.