A panel of five judges threw out their request to the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights.
Hamza, who was jailed for seven years for soliciting to murder and inciting racial hatred, has been fighting extradition since 2004.
Computer expert Babar Ahmad, who was also subject to this week's ruling, has been held in a UK prison without trial for eight years after being accused of raising funds for terrorism.
After the ruling in Europe, the Home Office said Hamza and Ahmad, with Seyla Talha Ahsan, Adel Abdul Bary and Al-Fawwaz, would be "handed over to the US authorities as quickly as possible".
A Home Office spokeswoman said: "The European Court of Human Rights ruled there was no bar to the extradition of these men. We will continue working to ensure they are handed over to the US authorities as soon as possible."