He will receive the silver putter during a handover ceremony at the close of play at the Medinah Country Club near Chicago on Sunday, which marks Scotland taking over preparations for the 2014 Ryder Cup.
The First Minister estimates the Scottish economy will benefit by up to £100 million from hosting the tournament, which is to take place in the same year as Glasgow stages the Commonwealth Games.
Speaking before his trip, he said: "This trade mission to Chicago will focus on benefiting the Scottish economy both on and off the golf course.
"In 2014, the eyes of the world will be on Scotland, the home of golf, as two great sporting events are played out across the country. The Ryder Cup at Gleneagles and the Commonwealth Games in Glasgow will showcase our ability to host world-class events to a global audience.
"This visit to Chicago is an excellent opportunity to attract tourism and investment into Scotland in advance of Gleneagles 2014 and we'll be welcoming the world with open arms."