Prof Sir Edwin receives his medal for his contribution to the development of biomedical research during the last 20 years while Dr Milne is being recognised for his work as a microelectronics entrepreneur.
The James Clerk Maxwell Award was introduced in 2007 and is presented every year by the RSE and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers to those who create technologies with worldwide benefits for humanity.
The honour is being bestowed on Prof Sessler for helping to revolutionise the modern microphone market twice in his career. He jointly invented the first polymer electric condenser microphone in the 1960s and then again in the 1980s when he co-designed the first micro-electro-mechanical systems condenser microphone. These were introduced to the market in 2002 and are used in mobile phones, laptops, MP3 players and hearing aids.
After the awards, the Duke will open an exhibition called From Maxwell to Higgs.
RSE president Sir John Arbuthnott said he was delighted that the Duke, an honorary fellow of the society, is presenting the awards. "These are our highest accolades. We greatly appreciate the interest HRH has taken in the society over the years and his personal involvement in the presentation of these prestigious awards," he added.