NHS boards spent £3.8 million on drug paraphernalia for addicts in the past two years, according to figures obtained by the Conservatives.
The 22 million items handed out by health boards ranged from spoons, needles, filters for smoking and "one-hit kits".
NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde spent the most, at £1.49 million, followed by NHS Grampian at £795,000, according to the figures obtained using freedom of information legislation. Island health boards said they do not run such schemes.
Health spokesman Jackson Carlaw MSP said: "The NHS in Scotland is handing out all manner of drug paraphernalia to drug users, at taxpayer expense, presumably in the hope that this will help reduce the spread of disease: in itself, a laudable aim.
"The problem is that, like the Scottish Government's policy of handing out methadone to heroin addicts, they must acknowledge that their actions are making it easier for addicts to keep using.
"We all want to have fewer drug addicts and the Government has a duty to help those addicted to drugs, but freely distributing methadone and drug paraphernalia is not the answer.
"We want more abstinence-based programmes to be explored to get people free from the curse of drug addiction. Parking them on methadone doesn't work, and neither does supplying all the necessary tools in order to take drugs."
Commenting on the figures, a Scottish Government spokeswoman said: "It is too simplistic to look at this problem in isolation. Increasing the quantity, quality and nature of injecting equipment provided is critical because it helps stop the transmission of diseases such as hepatitis C and notably HIV which would cost the NHS far more in the long run from treating and managing these infections.
"This is a preventative spend which significantly reduces the cost to the NHS and the taxpayer.
"We do not favour one form of treatment over any other. Decisions on the most appropriate treatment for an individual are for clinicians, in discussion with their patients and in line with national guidelines."